sexta-feira, 10 de agosto de 2012
EXPLICAÇÃO DO PROCESSO DE FUNCIONAMENTO CAUSADO PELO KIAI.
KIAI quer dizer união dos espíritos, pode ser um fenômeno psicofisiológico ou puramente fisiológico. Ao executá-lo, o indivíduo reúne todas as forças internas e externas, resultando no máximo de energia do corpo. Mas o KIAI não é um som comum, é um som impregnado de vontade e, dependendo da sua intensidade, pode atuar de várias maneiras. Ao gritar com o seu cão que corre, você poderá fazê-lo diminuir a marcha, parar ou mesmo fazê-lo voltar. Esses gritos são KIAIS, assim como são KIAIS o grito do pai para que o filho obedeça, o grito do guerreiro ao atacar o inimigo, o grunhido que se emite ao levantar algo demasiadamente pesado, o HAN do lenhador ao aplicar a machadada. Enfim, poderíamos citar inúmeros exemplos de que as pessoas usam o KIAI sem o saber.
O KIAI atua no cérebro do adversário e dependendo do tom e da determinação que é desenvolvida, pode momentaneamente paralisá-lo pelo medo e pela surpresa e, em consequência, ocasionar um desequilírio corporal. Sobrepondo-se aos fenômenos da influência física que a intensidade do KIAI pode causar, com o efeito da surpresa ou do temor, a síncope surge com mais facilidade. Mas os efeitos do KIAI podem ainda ir mais longe do que se pode imaginar. Por meio do KIAI é possível fazer uma pessoa acometida de um desmaio, recuperar os sentidos. Trata-se de um KIAI diferente. Não, para melhor explicação, daremos o seguinte exemplo: um choque elétrico pode fazer desmaiar uma pessoa e até causar-lhe a morte. Entretanto, sabemos que por meio de choques já foram recuperadas e salvas muitas vidas. Nos casos de reanimação, deve-se usar os tons mais agudos e altos e, ao contrário, para provocar a síncope deve-se usar os tons mais graves e baixos.
KIAI é a denominação para explicar o fenômeno, os tons emitidos podem ser variados, mas os mais usados são os que se seguem: YAAA, SAAA, OOOS, HAAA.
A SÍNCOPE PELO KIAI.
Por intermédio do ouvido médio, um som brutal intenso pode provocar uma contração repentina e muito viva da cadeia de ossinhos e acarretar ao mesmo tempo uma certa dor, um reflexo vegetativo inibidor, embaraçando as vias que vão desde o ouvido interno até o sistema cardíaco que, em consequência, causa a diminuição da pressão arterial e do ritmo cardíaco. Este fenômeno vindo a juntar-se com a surpresa e temor, causa a síncope com mais facilidade. Mesmo usando tons iguais pode-se causar síncope e reanimação. No caso de reanimação, o KIAI age de maneira oposta ao de provocar síncope, ou seja, provoca a excitação e a aceleração das funções respiratórias e cardíacas. Entenda-se que neste caso o KIAI deixa de agir por influência psicofisiológica, pois estando o paciente em síncope consequentemente está fechado a todas as manifestações mentais.
in SINOPSE DO JUDÔ (1976).
Neri Satter de Mello, página 7.
quinta-feira, 2 de agosto de 2012
Carta de Nagamine Shoshin à JKF sobre os Shitei Kata:
To: Zen Nihon Karate-do Renmei (= JKF), Takagi Fusajiro, Managing Director.
From: Okinawa-ken Karate-do Renmei (Okinawa Karate Federation), Nagamine Shoshin, President.
Date: November 1st, 1982
"Regarding the shitei kata (designated kata) of Karate-do at the National Athletic Meet.
At the 36th National Athletic Meet held in Shiga Prefecture last year (1981), the JKF for the first time carried out competition in the kata of Karate-do. For this purpose a total of 8 kata were designated as shitei kata by the JKF; namely Bassai-Dai, Chinto, Kanku-Dai and Jion from the Shuri-te system, and Seishan, Seiinchin, Seipai and Saifa from the Naha-te system.
At this year's National Athletic Meet, however, we received a great shock.
These appointed shitei kata were not only borrowed from us, but were also in a completely miserable condition!
We, the members of the Okinawa Karate Federation, are unable to be satisfied with this decision and are having difficulties in understanding the situation. Thus, we now offer a full report of our opinion. Candidly discussed among the board of directors of the Okinawa Karate Federation, we hereby sincerely request your organization's careful handling and consideration for improving this matter, with no preconceived notions.
Okinawa is the birthplace of Karate. Therefore we, the Okinawan people, are proud of, and responsible for, maintaining the pure traditional kata and handing them down as such to our posterity. However, we are aware of the present trend in which Karate has been regarded as a kind of sport for competition to some extent, and we are not reluctant in supporting this contemporary demand. We also want to clarify that we are not assuming an air of importance because of our long tradition, or the fact that Okinawa was the cradle of Karate. Our only wish is that your organization, the JKF, should pay more attention in selecting a reasonable method in the transition of Karate from a martial art to a sporting event.
Going back in history, we can look at the the Dai Nippon Butokukai [Japanese Martial Arts Federation] which was established in 1895 in order to modify the ancient Japanese martial arts into the modern-day Budo sports of Judo and Kendo, respectively. Not longer limiting their practise and subsequent mastering to the samurai class, these lethal techniques were made accessible to regular people. Ever since these days, the traditional Japanese martial arts became one of the three pillars of national education (moral education, intellectual training and physical education) in Japan.
Along with this development, refined kata of modern Judo and Kendo were born in 1906 and 1911 respectively, paving the way for further development in this new era.
However, the completion of these kata for Judo and Kendo required a time of 14-15 years. After long debate and occasionally tumultuous discussion among some 40 or 50 great masters representing the different Koryu Bujutsu (antique martial styles) of Japan who took part in the planning and extracting their piled up wisdom, these ultimate forms were finally devised. The details of which were decided by public opinion in a fair and democratic setting.
But, although already thirty-odd years have passed since the adoption of Karate sparring for competition (kumite), several revisions of the rules for Karate have come and gone. Still to this day no unified rules have been established and/or sanctioned by all! Moreover, for the competition of kata, the wisdom of the many masters of Okinawa has not been sought after (similar to Judo or Kendo), but rather it has been decided upon these borrowed shitei kata – which really is a flaw in the JKF's authority, isn't it?
They say, "better late than never", so we once more earnestly beg the JKF to look back on the historical facts, drawing a parallel to the modernization of the ancient styles of Jujutsu and Kenjutsu into today's Judo and Kendo. In the same manner, rather than to keep acknowledging the various offensive and defensive techniques of sport kumite only, we hope you can restore the fundamental kata of Okinawa too, so that Karate enthusiasts from all over the world, without exception and under equal conditions, may willingly participate in the nonpartisan and impartial kata competition.
To recapitulate our request to the JKF: We earnestly advise that you not only use the names of kata originating in Okinawa, but also the physical kata themselves as currently practiced in Okinawa, for future Karate competitions throughout Japan. By giving effect to the above mentioned ideas, we are confident that the interchange of ancient Okinawan kata with the new mainland kata of JKF will be realized, resulting in the "development of new ideas based on study of the past" [here Nagamine sensei uses the famous proverb "On-Ko-Chi-Shin"], the fruition of perfectly blending old and new techniques of Japanese Karate."
Adviser: Uehara Seikichi
Adviser: Higa Yuchoku
Adviser: Takamine Choboku
Vice-president: Miyahira Katsuya
Vice-president: Arakaki Seiki
Vice-president: Iraha Choketsu
Chairman of the board: Miyazato Ei'ichi
Board member: Nagamine Tadayoshi
Board member: Higa Seikichi
Board member: Akamine Eisuke
Board member: Shimabukuro Zenpo
Board member: Uehara Ko
Board member: Shimabukuro Eizo
Board member: Shiroma Seihan
Board member: Kise Fusei
Board member: Bise Joman
Board member: Shimabukuro Kichiro
Board member: Irei Takeshi
Board member: Sakumoto Tsuguo
Board member: Inamine Seijin
Board member: Kaneshi Eiko
Resposta da JKF à Okinawa Karate Federation, January 1983:
To: Nagamine Shoshin, President of the Okinawa-ken Karate-do Renmei (Okinawa Karate Federation).
From: Fusajiro Takaki, General Manager, Central Technical Division of the Japan Karate Federation.
Date: January 10th, 1983
"Re: Your opinion on the designation of shitei kata.
The standing committee meeting of the Central Technical Division of the JKF was held on December 11th to discuss the matters presented in your November 1st letter of opinion. The following is the official answer of the organization:
Concerning the existing designated shitei kata, they are the product of hard work among the members of JKF and adopted not only for the domestic events such as the National Athletic Meet, but also for international meets.
JKF is not of the opinion that the present methods are the best ones, and we are considering that your views might be adopted in future tournaments. However, in promoting National Athletic Meets as one way of competition, we are determined to continue to use the present kata, while maintaining the kumite as it is practised today.
Therefore, we intend to have a discussion with you in the future for a satisfactory solution of the problem.”
O comentário de Nagamine Sensei sobre a resposta da JKF, quando indagado em 1991, foi:
"The letter said that the JKF will have a discussion for a satisfactory solution of the matter, but nine years have already passed. Ever since that reply, not a word has been heard. This discredits the authority of the JKF, who is responsible for the unification of the global Karate kata. Again I repeat the phrase "better late than never". I am still looking forward to a quick correction on the part of the JKF."
Fonte:A eliminação dos Shitei Kata - Karate by Jesse.